Aim: The purpose of this literature review is to explore and synthesize the previous studies performed in simulation education research over the past five years that examine the effects of simulation training on the self-efficacy of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students.
Methodology: This literature review was conducted from 2016 to 2021 on simulation in nursing education. The literature was reviewed systematically using five electronic databases, including MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, Scopus, Embase, and PsycINFO. In order to identify search terms, a PICO model was used in combination with a thesaurus to provide synonyms. Reference lists of relevant articles were analyzed as well as hand searches of journals. A total of 11 studies were included. All studies with quantitative designs were included.
Results: A total of 10 out of 11 included studies indicated that simulation education enhanced the self-efficacy of pre-registered nursing students. Several of the studies included in this review, however, lacked adequate design, sample size, and significant differences in scales employed.
Conclusions: Although most of the studies indicated that simulation training has a positive impact on pre-registration nursing students' self-efficacy, the majority of studies included in this review contained several gaps, including study design, sample size, and differences in scales used. For a deeper understanding of the effectiveness of simulation in undergraduate nursing education, more research with large samples, reliable and valid instruments is needed. In addition, a standardized method for evaluating nursing clinical competence and self-efficacy is necessary.