Title : An integrative review of caring bias of baccalaureate nursing students
Purpose: To review relevant literature on caring bias of baccalaureate nursing students and to determine its attributes and characteristics.
Organizing Construct: An integrative review search was conducted with inclusion criteria: : 1) Primary source such as empirical research, theoretical literature, concept analysis, observational studies, articles, editorials and qualitative studies; 2) Involved the discipline and practice of nursing and; 3) Identified “caring bias” within the title and context of the abstract.
Methods: A search for theoretical and empirical articles published from 1974 to 2019 using the word and phrase: “bias,” and “caring bias” similar terms such as “tendency,” “tendencies,” inclination” and “inclinations” was conducted during September 2019 in the databases Cumulative Index to Nursing Allied Health, Scopus, Science Direct and ProQuest. Additional literature search was undertaken thru manual web search.
Findings: The characteristics of caring bias are expressed in themes extracted from literatures from a variety of settings which include the following: Caring bias by formation; caring bias by perception; and caring bias as a defense mechanism. Themes were illustrated in a conceptual model showing relationships among themes. Grounding the themes is that caring bias of baccalaureate nursing students is developed and learned.
Conclusion: Caring bias is a well-established phenomenon in the nursing profession and across settings. This caring bias of nursing students has a direct effect on health outcomes.
Clinical relevance: The findings provide understanding the root cause of caring bias in nursing. This will lay foundation to exert efforts in minimizing caring bias in nursing. The findings also support specialty in nursing, review of nursing programs and nursing faculty competence in understanding their bias and institutionalizing self-reflection tests to minimize caring biases