Title : Sleep Patterns and Sleeping Disorders Among Low Risk and High Risk Pregnant Saudi Women: A Comparative Approach
Introduction: Scattered research evaluated sleep pattern as well as sleep disorders across pregnancy. However, sleep disorders remains under recognized in women of the Middle Eastern Arab population. Further, to our knowledge little is known about sleep and sleep disorders during pregnancy in Saudi Arabia. Thus, this study is designed to investigate sleep patterns and sleeping disorders among low risk and high risk pregnant, Saudi women.
Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional design was utilized. The study was conducted at King Khaled National Guard Hospital, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City Jeddah. A simple random stratified sample of total of N= 300 participants of which n=184 was low risk and n=116 was high risk pregnant women in the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy were recruited. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire related to sleep patterns and sleep disorders.
Results: More than half of the studied sample was low risk (61.3%) while only (38.7%) were high risk. As regard to gestational age, (25%) of the studied sample were in early pregnancy between 5 to 19 weeks, (26.3 %) were between 20 to 28 weeks , (35.3%) were between 29 to 36 weeks while (13% were between 37 week to 42 weeks of pregnancy. As regards to the fetal presentation (84.3%) was cephalic, (12.3%) breech and (3.3%) shoulder presentation. The most common problems among the high risk pregnant women were gestational diabetes (16%), anemia (6.7%), hypertension (2.3%), respiratory problems (3%), and urinary tract infection (2.3%) while (8.3%) complained from more than one health problem. There was no significant difference found regarding the number of hours slept during weekdays and weekends across pregnancy among the two groups. There was a significant difference in regards to the following causes of nocturnal awakening; nightmares p=0.001, restless legs p=0.03 and legs feeling hot and itchy p=0.017 among the two groups. It was found that the dozing mean score as measured by the Epworth sleepiness scale was highest in women who were 5 to 19 weeks pregnant (score of 8)that indicates higher normal daytime sleepiness as compared with women who were 37 to 42 weeks pregnant ( score of 5 )indicative of lower normal daytime sleepiness. As for symptoms of sleep apnea results indicated that (55%) never were awakened by choking while (42.67%) sometimes have awakened by chocking. Result indicated that there was statistically significant difference between common sleeping problems and gestational age of pregnant women (X2 = 39.59 p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, the highest mean percentage of common sleeping problem was recorded for restless leg (34.33%) among high risk pregnant women and there was a significant difference between the two groups p=0.030. Conclusion: Physiological changes that occur during pregnancy may predispose women to exacerbation of preexisting sleep disordered breathing or to the development of new diseases.