Title : Translation and Validation of Chinese version of the Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ): A multi-site cross-sectional study
Background: Childbirth experiences have immediate and long-term effects on health, life, and well-being. Understanding mothers’ experiences may help identify maternal needs and aspects of care in need of improvement.
Objective: To culture adapt the Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) into Chinese and evaluate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the CEQ (CEQ-C) in health institutes.
Design and settings: This is a translation and validation study conducted at postnatal wards in 50 China health institutes. Participants: A total 1747 women who gave trans-vaginal birth in investigated health institutes during the study periods.
Method: The study was composed of two phases: produced the Chinese version of the CEQ (C-ECQ), tested its content validity with a pre-test in a small population, and tested the construct validity and reliability among over 1700 women in the field study phase.
Results: A total of 1747 postpartum women filled up the questionnaire completely. The exploratory factor analysis suggested four clear dimensions (own capacity, perceived safety, participation, and professional support) after deleted three items from original CEQ and the confirmatory factor analysis supported that four-dimension model (GFI=0.953, AGFI=0.937, RMSEA=0.051, RMR=0.023). Duration of labor, delivery mode, and parity produced significant difference in CEQ-C score. Oxytocin augmentation, pain management, companionship, prenatal education and experienced pain also had significant effect on women’s childbirth experiences. Moderate positive correlations (r=0.441, P<0.001) were found between the CEQ-C scores and the overall satisfaction score indication good criterion validity. The Cronbach’s alpha of the CEQ-C and four domains was 0.88, 0.83, 0.71, 0.60, and 0.92, respectively. Conclusions: The CEQ-C has satisfactory psychometric properties and is an easy and promising tool for assessing the experiences of childbirth in Chinese speaking women to improve intrapartum care quality and can be used to conduct comparison studies between the Eastern and the Western on this issue in the future.