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4th Edition of

Singapore Nursing Research Conference

March 21-23, 2024 | Singapore

Nursing 2023

Malliga Jambulingam

Speaker at Singapore Nursing Research Conference 2023 - Malliga Jambulingam
Morgan State University, United States

Title: Insights into inconsistent infant safe sleep practices among African American caregivers


Background: After the 1994 national “Safe Sleep Campaign,” acceptance of infant sleep practices was followed by a significant reduction in the national SIDS death rate. Interestingly, SIDS deaths of African American (AA) infants has remained comparatively high --creating an incidence rate disparity. The elusive question is “why?” Understanding the basis of infant safe sleep practices by given AA caregivers is therefore important to effectively address inconsistency surrounding the “ABCs” of safe sleep practices. 
Objective: To understand the knowledge base, attitudes, circumstances, and current behavioral patterns surrounding infant safe sleep practices among given AA caregivers. 
Methods: A purposive sampling strategy, including 31 participants from three targeted Baltimore communities, was employed. Knowledge and attitudes of caregivers were assessed using a Focus Group questionnaire to draw participant responses about why ABC strategies for safe sleep were not consistently followed. Caregivers practices of infant placement for sleep were first assessed by having them demonstrate their routine using a life-size doll in a crib which purposefully contained other items. All group conversations were audio-recorded and transcribed. Collected data were analyzed using ATLAS and by two researchers. 
Results: A substantial percentage of the AA caregivers of these communities did not fully understand safety-based and anatomical rationale for placing infants alone and on their backs for sleep. Many expressed fears that the baby might choke, the goal of getting maximum sleep for baby and caretaker, while some sought easy monitoring ability. 
Conclusion: Understanding the misgivings, circumstances, and fears are instrumental for imagining and supplementing existing safe sleep practice recommendations. Continued Town Hall forums that include practical demonstrations, along with meaningful discussions with educational tools, inclusive of Q & A follow-up should be developed to reduce fears and misconceptions to best increase consistent practice of placing infants alone in supine reduce the risk of SRID.


Dr. Jambulingam has an extensive experience in the field of maternal child health. She received her PhD (Nursing) degree in 2014 at the University of Texas Medical Branch, Texas, USA. Her research interest concepts are Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, student success, and leadership. As a health promotion aspect, she performed a research in the U. S. on infant massage as it has benefits for mothers and infants. She has expanded her research on “International NICU Nurses’ Attitudes Regarding Preterm Infant Massage” at the Council of International NICU Nurses Conference, Vancouver, Canada. As a continuation of study, she has performed a study on “Mothers’ Perceptions Regarding Preterm Infant Massage” in Baltimore, MD, USA.